In my recent presentation of the Seminar on Advances in the Multi-Land Cadastre in Latin America, held in Bogotá, I focused on emphasizing the importance of placing the citizen at the center of the benefits of modernization processes. He mentioned the approach to processes in the integration of Cadastre - Registry management, emphasizing that the revision of procedures is an obligatory step to reduce activities, steps, requirements or tasks that do not add value, which are a consequence of the limitations that we have had and that who suffers them is the final user.
A modernization process is broader than an automation process. More important than designing a cadastral sweeping system or method, a strategy to improve procedures should be promoted with an efficiency perspective in services to the citizen in at least time, costs, quality, data management and traceability.
In the case of this article, I want to refer to the number of intermediaries that there are in a registry management, and how this affects the indicators of attractiveness for investment in a country.
1 More intermediaries = more procedures = more requirements = more time = more cost.
Encouraging a process of modernization of the registry management should consider the chain of the complete process, not for the benefit of the instinctuality but of the citizen. From our institutional perspective we will always think about a new revision, a new cross-control, a new requirement, as aspects that we believe add value, and although we think about reducing times we will not necessarily think about the global times and the improvement of conditions for the actors that they are outside the institution but they intervene with the user, such as the surveyor, notary, bank or municipality.
A valuable example of the aspiration to which the Integrated Cadastre Management Model - Registry of a country in Central America which I have been invited to accompany, points out, its challenges include:
- The lack of access to registration information by the notary forces the citizen to obtain a registration certificate.
- The dispersion of a cadastre in three different institutions, with a physical reality, a tax reality and a fiscal reality, and that impacts the citizen because it must go to each of these places for a solvency, for a payment or in the worst of the cases for an inspection.
- The difficulty of an effective rectorship of the accredited surveyors, which implies doubting their measurement and going to inspection in more than 5o% of cases.
- The lack of a close access to the citizen, which allows a filing (presentation) without having to go to a physical office that is only in the departmental headquarters.
- The good intention to help the municipalities in their collection, but which requires obtaining a tax solvency to be able to make a registration. With the complexities that this leads, because between the time that processes requirements can be overcome the validity of that solvency.
This means that the citizen must go to the Property Registry, the notary, the surveyor, the Tax Cadastre, the Municipal Cadastre, the Physical Cadastre and always at the end with all the requirements to the Land Registry. This interaction is at least two times, in the case that it is delivered as required in the first attempt, that does not have to clean some discordant data, which does not require a certificate of border area and clear, with several sessions at least with the notary that in a certain way benefits from this complexity.
A modernization process must include the improvement of the management model for the citizen. If not, it's just automation of the vices.
In this country, the registration time of 30 to 22 days was reduced by little, if the time in Cadastre is 10 days the approval of a plan + 15 days a certificate + 25 if there is an inspection: and if there is three cadastres in between; multiply it. So, if this country to which I refer succeeds (because if you insist with discipline they will achieve it) in the short term materialize the aspiration to simplify that chain, with a unique number of procedures, as we came to agree, I'm sure you'll have to go and see it not only to enjoy the taste of the güirilas and gallo pinto that are a luxury.
I give another example, in the case of South America, where I am now looking at the issue of processes, in which only one version of Cadastre is included, but where an urban curator and a Planning Department intervene. Added to this problem, Catastro is at the end of the chain, even after having registered the change that includes graphic modification, and in most cases it does not know until the alert it could receive from the curator, of a new building. This makes the citizen pass through: Land Registry for the freedom of encumbrances, notary, land surveyor, curator, Municipality, Land Registry for registration and Cadastre; with the risk that one year after having made the sale, they call it Catastro, which they need to take to the surveyor's map, since the information does not match the cadastral database.
The citizen is more important than the procedure.
Many of these steps and controls seem to be good from the institutional side. But from the side of the citizen, are time, cost, duplicity of requirements, discordance of information, finally low indicators of competitiveness for the country.
Even so, the potential of what this safe banana country aspires to be will be a worthy example of coming to see. Ah, because here also the paisa tray or patacón gratinado are a show that does not feature those series of bad reputation launched by Netflix.
2 Less intermediaries = greater incentive for the property market = increase in the registry culture.
Reducing intermediaries in the transactional chain Registry - Cadastre cannot be done from the perspective of the institutions, by individual. This is not a task for cadastral technicians, not even for registrars, since a majority of them will adhere to custom, to the procedure or even to the law. Do not even go to computers that will be happy to use terms like #AI #4IR #IoT #BigData #DeepLearning #DigitalTwin. These changes (it is clear that I am just talking about intermediaries) occupy an industrial engineering perspective and political will for decisions in favor of the development of a nation; with the sensitivity of the citizen who suffers from the bureaucracy, and a lot of common sense for the good practices that have worked both in the American context and in countries that have already overcome that feeling that the more complex is more "cool", without ruling out a small group of people who are always in the institutions, who have very developed common sense and are only waiting for the opportunity to apply simplification ideas that have not had an echo -although for it has to come a gray hair to reinforce what had already been thought-.
It's like the famous phrase of one of my mentors on the other side of the pond: Big projects does not need engineers, but business guys.
Everything is focused on the citizen, looking for what adds value. Before, buying a minute recharge for mobile telephony or paying the bill was a protocol in the agency; today it is bought in the supermarket box or online. Because for them it is not a business to charge, but to dedicate themselves to the service of innovation in communication. Before each telephone had its own poles, cables, data centers, now they outsource that because their business is not civil engineering, not even computer science.
Many of the things that state institutions do can be outsourced, because they do not add value, or because someone can do it better. Example the filing (reception), which can be done by an actor close to the citizen before whom he must necessarily go, such as the surveyor, the notary, the municipality, the bank, or it could be created by the same citizen. Deconcentrating unprofitable tasks for the State can even help it to concentrate on regulating operators and making efficient work of greater value for the citizen such as qualification and registration. Approval of qualification criteria and simplification of templates can lead to the implementation of automation inference engines, so that the risk of mistake from who is the procedure, to the funnel of the qualification; almost as it does now a registration certificate that 40 years ago we thought could only be "reasoned and written in verse" but now we see no problem that is a result issued by the system in tabular form.
And see that we're not even talking about smart contracts or open notaries. We are talking about decreasing intermediaries.
Many tasks can be done in fewer steps, if you think about the citizen. Example, multiple payments, which in the end always go to the same state and technologically can be partitioned even if they are charged at a single point.
The state has no money; He has our money. The State exists to give a better service to the citizen, not to control the will between the parties in lawful acts. Decision makers should focus their efforts on the essence of public service.
The citizen learns more in the taxi on the way from the Catastro headquarters to the Registry office, than from the theoretical advice of the ISO gurus.
It's great that I now make a single line, to make the quote, pay with my card and the presentation, instead of the three rows I used to make between the appraiser, the bank and the receiver. Now I do not even pay a feeder because I know that time will adjust me.
I have three rejections in this process. Each time a different analyst qualifies me.
I am not interested in the signature of the Director of Cadastre, with a stamp that says it was issued by the institution and a way to check if it is faithful.
I do not understand that list of requirements that they published. I always have to pay the notary to explain them to me and the manager so he can review them.
I do not know how to get this requirement out if they pick it up at the window and throw it in the trash.
3 How many steps can a registry management decrease?
To reinforce that it is possible to simplify, without losing control, I will use the indicators «doing business»October of 2018, of the number of steps involved in doing a registry management, and I will focus on the countries of America and Europe as points of comparison. See that the methodology used by doing business calls it "procedures", because I can have only two intermediaries as actors, but if I have to go through them three times, surely there will be six procedures; since I do not go through the same reasons. And while some of these indicators are taken from specific and contextual services to major cities, they are a comparative starting point to think about where we want or can go.
Countries with more bureaucracy in terms of intermediaries of a registry management:
The table above shows the countries with the most intermediaries, ranging from 7 to 14. Brazil has the extreme, even with 14.
Leaving out Brazil, among the worst cases of complication for the citizen in procedure for these purposes are Uruguay, Venezuela and Nicaragua with 9 steps.
Mexico has 8 intermediaries.
Colombia, Panama, Guatemala, Argentina and Bolivia have 7 intermediaries.
The first column is a registry efficiency ranking that, apart from the intermediaries, considers quality aspects of the land administration, the times and the cost relation with respect to the value of the object in transaction. This ranking, the lower, is better; so that the best ranked in this group are Ecuador that having 8 intermediaries has a ranking of 75, as well as Colombia with a ranking of 59 with 7 intermediaries. Even so, they are ranking with many challenges, above 50; Bolivia and Nicaragua have the most remote from an attractive efficiency for the citizen.
Countries with a moderate level of intermediaries.
The table above shows the countries with intermediaries from 5 to 6.
See here the rest of Latin America.
Here also falls Spain that is in 6 intermediaries and it can be clearly seen that beyond decreasing procedures also influences the cost, time and quality aspect of cadastral information, such as the cases of Canada with a ranking below 40, and Peru and Costa Rica with ranking below 50. Haiti is also extreme, although it only has 5 intermediaries it has a ranking of 181.
Undoubtedly the development indexes are somewhat relative, especially because of the human factor because they are impacted by political clientelism, lack of public service careers and little emphasis on improving efficiency indicators. Let's not say because of the gap in the little registry culture.
Countries with optimal intermediaries in the registry chain.
This is the other extreme. See, as the countries with fewer intermediaries have below 40 in the ranking of competitiveness in registry efficiency. At least 4 include the possibility of doing all the steps before a single registration authority; It is practically a self-service before a reliable registry.
Denmark and Finland have 3 intermediaries, with rankings of 11 and 28 respectively.
Russia, Switzerland, Italy and the United States have 4 intermediaries. By the way, the United States is the only American country in this group.
I close the article with this, to remember that my opinions do not necessarily bring them from birth, as sometimes my daughter makes me feel.
A half day at the 11: 30 in the afternoon, in the foothills of the Cordillera de Montecillos, hungry and with that gps backpack splintering the jets of sweat from my back, I tried to explain to an owner the value of the new measurement that We were doing. After giving up using UTM words, differential correction, satellite constellation, WGS84, digital format and other words that I thought would convince the owner of the farm, I said:
The most important value of this new measurement is that your neighbor can not be put in the limit of your property.
He took out a machete that reached his waist and said:
Look engineer, this is the guarantee that is valid for me.
Then he invited me to eat some fresh tortillas with chopped egg and beans, and recommended the way to go up to the next farm.
The essence of what adds value, we do not know what we are from the process design side. The citizen knows it and we must not stop asking him.
The essence of the public servant is to contribute to the development of the country, making life easier for the citizen.