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The data in the cadastre

The multipurpose criterion in the cadastre is highly questionable, the reason is not its usefulness but also the sustainability of the data. If we did an extreme exercise (As well as the capon cock :)), it could be that "all" the data are useful sooner or later, but for practical purposes, many of these data are a burden to sustainability, in the medium term its capture or update would be ruled out. When someone wants to do a cadastre "Multipurpose", You should ask yourself things like:

Who will consult the data?
What level of accuracy is expected?
Who will update the data?
How often will it be updated?

It is possible to identify that not all the data in the cadastral file are "necessary" immediately, but some of general use that "others" (not the cadastre) could consult but never update. We could call these data multipurpose general use. There are also data that the cadastre could not update, not because it could not but because they become unsustainable or there is another institution with better conditions (or interests), although these data are necessary, since their update does not depend on the cadastre, they must considered secondary or specific use. To the extent that “unnecessary” data is minimized and one of the principles that the INSPIRE initiative has recovered is followed, which says that information should only be captured once in the field, data management will be more sustainable.

An interesting way to separate the data is based on its relationship with the institutions involved, such as the Municipal Cadastre Department, the National Cadastre, the Land Registry, Planning Offices, etc. Much of this changes according to the legislation of each country, but it is important to remember that the cadastre registers "the facts" and any aspect that is not "done" could be the responsibility of another instance, also to separate the data that is captured in field, and those that will be of later process.

Lemmen separates information, from the three main figures of the Cadastre: Subject, Subject and Law. For educational purposes we have called Affections and Transactions To relationship figures, (usually composed of data obtained by post-capture analysis) so that the exercise is also easy to remember:

DErecho (The relation between the subject and the object)
Afectaciones (Relationships between the object and the right, including legal territorial objects)
Transacciones (Relationships between the subject(s) and the right)
OBjeto (The property)
S(Individuals, natural or legal)

The following image is a conception of 2009, when we raised these relationships. By 2012 they came to have terms that were standardized by ISO 19152 (LADM).

Object s Object, this is the representation of reality that can be registered at the level of maps or documents. Here they appear then:

  • The plot, which may well be sub-plot, multiple plot, registered plot and service plot (shared in condominium) but which as a rule has a geometry linked to data. Accuracy is a question of the relevance of the cadastre and long-term vision.
  • The building, which can include construction, fixed installations, improvements and even non-georeferenced assets. In the rural case, it will also be permanent improvements such as crops.
  • Also at this level the goods may be in the status of a non-georeferenced document (such as a sworn statement), as a point (such as the punctual cadastre or plot text), such as spaghetti (such as CAD maps without geodatabase integration).

Object s Subject, This is the representation of people, and can be natural, not natural (as legal) people and may also have groupings.

 

Tax, this is the relationship between people (subjects) and goods (objects). Not only legally registered real rights can be included here, but also those in fact, but that reflect a link of possession, possession or right of transfer.

Object sConcerns, are actions that affect in an attributive or restrictive way the right to use, domain, habitation, usufruct or transfer of the object. It is quite similar to the law, but it is an extension of this that the registry systems end up giving many names (as a marginal note) for not being their competition, or at least not Its accuracy. This can be a documentary reference, but in general they start from a spatial coincidence that affects the plot, whether by public or private law; for example:

  • A high voltage line, which restricts the use or room, but not the domain
  • An underground train, which passes under many buildings, also applied to the 3D cadastre, when a property is on a public highway.
  • A ditch control system, which restricts underground use for water extraction purposes.
  • An area subject to flood, a protected area, an easement of passage etc.

Generally affectations are transient or may change over time its effect; for example:

A parcel can be within an ejidal legal nature; For titling purposes, the ejido defines who issues the domain certificate, but once registered it can be treated as private despite being within an ejidal nature. It did not change the region of affectation but the effect.

Also affectations do not oblige to make partitions ex officio, if it is not necessary; for example:

A parcel may be partially affected by an urban boundary, which restricts its partial use, but does not require segregation; Unless the urban boundary affects who should title it inside or outside.

And also affectations are "facts" as long as they are not within a special mandatory regime; for example:

A parcel that is partially within a road easement or protected area. The cadastre says "it is like this", but it is the relevance of another institution to decide the action for regularization purposes.

Object sTransactions, are actions carried out on the acquired right. This can be: measurement, construction, updating, transfer or appraisal.

Transactions must be captured and updated by the corresponding entities by law. To put a
example:

The valuation It is not a fact, but a transaction on a property, which is made at a certain time, with a method and which will be valid as long as there is no update of that appraisal. But the appraisal is not relevant to the cadastre (as a general data), but rather a transaction for commercial or tax purposes. It means that it is a data, for tax use or for capital gain studies; its updating must be the responsibility of another department, even with a consignment to the cadastre.

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Object s To partially close the topic on which we will return later, we can define that the "multipurpose data for general use" should be reduced to a minimum under the jurisdiction of the cadastre, and they should be separated from the "multipurpose specific use" data. As long as the minimum requirements of the Basic approaches Of the cadastre: Fiscal, socioeconomic, legal and land use.

Golgi Alvarez

Writer, researcher, specialist in Land Management Models. He has participated in the conceptualization and implementation of models such as: National Property Administration System SINAP in Honduras, Management Model of Joint Municipalities in Honduras, Integrated Cadastre-Registry Management Model in Nicaragua, Territory Administration System SAT in Colombia . Editor of the Geofumadas knowledge blog since 2007 and creator of the AulaGEO Academy that includes more than 100 courses on GIS - CAD - BIM - Digital Twins topics.

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2 Comments

  1. Interesting article, in this period of opening everything, all information should be available to everyone and well integrated, that competitiveness for data disappears, there is still some time to do so ...

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